Pediatrics Quick Notes

Table of Contents
1 PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….5
1.1 Atrial Septal Defect………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5
1.2 Coarctation of the Aorta………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5
1.3 Patent Ductus Arteriosus ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.4 Tetralogy of Fallot………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..6
1.5 Transposition of the Great Vessels…………………………………………………………………………………………………6
1.6 Ventricular Septal Defect………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
2 PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
2.1 Acute Bronchiolitis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
2.2 Acute Epiglottitis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8
2.3 Croup…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.4 Pneumonia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
2.5 Respiratory Syncytial Virus………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
2.6 Asthma …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
2.7 Cystic Fibrosis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
2.8 Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome (Hyaline Membrane Disease)…………………………………………….14
2.9 Foreign Body Aspiration ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..15
3 PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………16
3.1 Dwarfism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
3.2 Type I Diabetes Mellitus ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..16
3.3 Type II Diabetes Mellitus …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
3.4 Obesity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
4 PEDIATRIC EENT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
4.1 Conjunctivitis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19
4.2 Dacryoadenitis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
4.3 Strabismus (Tropia)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………20
4.4 Otitis Media……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
4.5 Otitis Externa …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
4.6 Oral Candidiasis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..21
4.7 Nasal Polyps……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..22
4.8 Pharyngitis & Tonsillitis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….23
4.9 Dental Caries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….26
5 Pediatric GI……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….27
5.1 Gastritis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
5.2 Pyloric Stenosis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
5.3 Constipation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
5.4 Intussusception………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30
5.5 Umbilical Hernia ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31
5.6 Childhood Nutritional Deficiencies ………………………………………………………………………………………………..31
5.7 Phenylketonuria…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………32
5.8 Lactose Intolerance ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
5.9 Abdominal Pain …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
5.10 Acute Abdominal Pain ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..35
5.11 Diarrhea……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………39
5.12 Hyperbilirubinemia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..42
6 PEDIATRIC GU…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………43
6.1 Cryptorchidism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..43
6.2 Cystitis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..44
6.3 Orchitis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….45
6.4 Wilms Tumor …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….45
6.5 Male Circumcision ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..45
6.6 Vesicoureteral Reflux………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….46
6.7 Vaginitis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46
6.8 Dysmenorrhea …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..47
6.9 Amenorrhea………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………47
7 PEDIATRIC MSK ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………49
7.1 Nursemaid’s Elbow (Radial Head Subluxation) ………………………………………………………………………………49
7.2 Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis ……………………………………………………………………………………………….49
7.3 Osteosarcoma …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..50
7.4 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………51
7.5 Osgood-Schlatter Disease…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
7.6 Scoliosis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..54
7.7 Pediatric Fractures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..55
8 PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
8.1 Febrile Seizures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………60
8.2 Cerebral Palsy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..61
8.3 Headache …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………62
8.4 Migraine Headaches…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..63
8.5 Tension Headaches……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………63
8.6 Cluster Headaches …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….64
9 PEDIATRIC PSYCHIATRY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………65
9.1 ADHD ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………65
9.2 Autism………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………66
9.3 Eating Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..67
9.4 Adjustment Disorder …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..68
9.5 Child Abuse ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………68
10 PEDIATRIC DERMATOLOGY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….70
10.1 Dermatitis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………70
10.2 Childhood Exanthems…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………71
10.3 Dermatophytoses ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………74
10.4 Acne Vulgaris ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………80
10.5 Molluscum Contagiosum …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….80
10.6 Verrucae…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..81
10.7 Impetigo……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………81
10.8 Lice………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….82
11 PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….83
11.1 Sickle Cell Anemia……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..83
11.2 Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia ………………………………………………………………………………………………………84
12 PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE……………………………………………………………………………………………………85
12.1 Diphtheria …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………85
12.2 Pinworms………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….85
12.3 Mumps……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..86
12.4 Pertussis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..86
13 Pediatrics Exam Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….87
13.1 The Newborn Infant ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………87
13.2 Pediatric Oral Health…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..91
13.3 Pediatric Physical Exam & Health Maintenance Exams …………………………………………………………………..94
13.4 Immunizations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..98
13.5 Child Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..101
13.6 Common Behavior Problems……………………………………………………………………………………………………..105
13.7 Pediatric Nutrition …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….107
13.8 Lactation Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..108
13.9 Childhood Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………110
13.10 Adolescent Medicine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………112
13.11 Sports Pre-Participation Physical………………………………………………………………………………………..115
13.12 Pediatric Fever…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………118
13.13 Pediatric UTI ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………119
14 Pediatrics Exam II TRP …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….122
14.1 ADHD …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….122
14.2 Pediatric Imaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..124
14.3 Pediatric Asthma ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..128
14.4 Pediatric Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea……………………………………………………………………………130
14.5 Pediatric GI Problems……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….131
14.6 Pediatric Labs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….133
14.7 Medical Evaluation for Child Abuse and Neglect …………………………………………………………………………..135
14.8 Pediatric Infectious Disease ………………………………………………………………………………………………………138
14.9 Autism…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….148
14.10 The Allergic Child……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..151
14.11 Dehydration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..154
14.12 Heart Disease in Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………….156
14.13 Pediatric Pharmacology …………………………………………………………………………………………………….163
14.14 Pediatric Hematology………………………………………………………………………………………………………..165
14.15 Pediatric Oncology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………169
14.16 Common Pediatric Musculoskeletal Disorders………………………………………………………………………173