One of the most common genitourinary diagnoses about minors, especially inside the emergency room, is urinary tract infection (UTI). We’ve already discussed the pathophysiology of UTI in our previous lecture. Now, we’ll be going through the nursing process.
There is a higher prevalence of urinary tract infection in females than in males due to the length of their urethra, which is short and is closer to the anus where the bacteria come from.
The bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) are primarily responsible for UTI manifestation. Technically, E. coli are normal probiotics that are residing inside the digestive system, which are considered as the good guys that help with digestion. However, there are circumstances wherein these good guys go into other areas like the urethra, which then provokes the infection.
How does E. coli reach the urethra?
E. coli can travel inside the urethra and cause infection due to the following reasons:
- Improper wiping technique
- Unsanitary practices
- Not changing the underwear
Usually, parents would bring their children to the emergency room and complain about their children having either one of the following:
- Pain during urination
- Increased frequency of urination
The burning sensation a client feels is due to the white blood cells that are fighting the infection along the urethra. Moreover, the urination frequency is caused by the body trying to eject more fluid from the system.
Take note that clients will only experience mild fever with UTI since this is different from a kidney infection. A kidney infection is worse compared to UTI because the bacteria has already gone up and traveled inside the kidneys; this is the time that clients will suffer from a lot of manifestations.
To confirm the diagnosis, diagnostic tests have to be carried out. The common diagnostic tests are the following:
- Urine sample – to determine the smell, consistency, and cloudiness or transparency
- Culture and sensitivity – definitive diagnostic test
Highlight culture and sensitivity because this might come out of your exams. A definitive diagnostic test for UTI is to prove what kind of bacteria is causing the condition, and what antibiotic the bacteria will react to and knock them out.
Since the main problem is the bacteria, the essential nursing action is to get rid of it. The medication that is usually given to pediatric UTI clients is Fluoroquinolones (Levaquin).
Client education is another nursing intervention that must be taken into great consideration to prevent the recurrence of the disease. So what are the things that you have to remind your client?
- Increase fluid intake to cleanse the system efficiently.
- Drink concentrated cranberry juice.
- Avoid baths for the meantime.
- Exercise proper wiping technique which is from front to back so as not to introduce further infections inside the urethra.
When it comes to choosing the best brand of cranberry juice, make sure to purchase at whole food stores or holistic health and avoid those that are purchased in Walmart that are not that concentrated.
That’s it for our pediatric UTI lecture. Next, we would be discussing what undescended testicles are. For a wide array of nursing topics you can dig into, visit our SimpleNursing website and YouTube channel.