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- Aldos-Tyrone (Aldosterone)
- Renin and Angiotensin I and Angiotensin II: The CEO and The Assistant Managers
- ACE Inhibitors
Welcome to the renin angiotensin aldosterone system, or Club RAAS, where you’ll get a dose of crucial information about ACE inhibitors and the elements responsible for the system’s regulation.
What are the things you can get out of this lecture?
- A better understanding of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system through Club RAAS.
- How ACE inhibitors break up the system to release fluid out of the kidneys that cause decreased heart congestion.
Aldos-Tyrone (Aldosterone): The Bouncer
Aside from sweating, breathing, and vomiting, the best way for the body to expel waste is through the kidneys in the form of urine. Therefore, the kidneys play a significant part in relieving the pressure or workload of the heart by activating or deactivating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
From this moment, you can think of your kidneys as Club RAAS – a nightclub with doors and a bouncer to guard those doors.
So at the main entrance of Club RAAS, there’s a bouncer whose primary responsibility is to monitor what goes in and out of club’s door. The bouncer’s name is Aldos-Tyrone (aldosterone). Aldosterone is an enzyme produced by the kidneys for fluid retention and control.
Aldos-Tyrone is basically that guy who closes the doors to your club to ensure that nothing comes in or out.
Club RAAS = Aldos-Tyrone (The Bouncer) = fluid retention and filtration control
Renin and Angiotensin I and Angiotensin II: The CEO and The Assistant Managers
Next, we have the upper management that oversees the entire club – the CEO. The CEO in your Club RAAS is Mr. Renin, located in your adrenal glands right above the kidneys. Mr. Renin is responsible for giving the orders or calling the shots, and he communicates with his assistant managers – Angiotensin I and Angiotensin II.
From the CEO to the assistant managers, the message to shut down the club is then conveyed to Aldos-Tyrone through a telephone system. The need to shut down the club and keep everyone inside is meant to boost revenue by selling drinks.
The CEO (Mr. Renin) -> Assistant Managers (Angiotensin I and II) -> Aldos-Tyrone (Aldosterone)
Sodium (NA) and Water (H2O): The Demographic
Apart from having control of the club’s entrance, Aldos-Tyrone is also responsible for overseeing the specific demographic that goes in first, and it’s the women. Here, the women represent sodium (NA). The moment these women enter Club RAAS, the men will immediately follow them. Men represent water (H2O).
The CEO is aware that the men are the ones who will buy drinks, resulting in increased revenue. For this reason, the CEO will instruct the bouncer to allow enough women in the club to have enough men to bring in revenue. So, this is the whole concept when it comes to the entire Club RAAS scenario.
Aldos-Tyrone -> allows sodium (women) inside the club -> sodium attracts water (men)
Increased Sodium: The Concept
Sodium attracts water as women attract men. Therefore, if the body is feeling hypotensive, it will signal your kidneys to increase pressure. Aldosterone will do its job by shutting down the kidneys and not letting the sodium out but still allowing it to come in. As the sodium increases, so does the water. This will cause increased blood pressure.
If Aldos-Tyrone does not stop allowing women to go inside and not allowing them to come out, Club RAAS will reach its maximum capacity and will cause strain on its walls.
What happens if there is increased sodium inside the body?
- Skyrocketed blood pressure
- Pounding pulse
- Fluid retention and weight gain
To stop overloading the kidneys and the body with sodium and water, Aldos-Tyrone needs to be blocked, and to do so, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor is administered.
ACE inhibitors or your aldosterone receptor blocker cut the lines of communication between the CEO and Aldos-Tyrone. This basically means that you are blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Increased sodium and water = block aldosterone = use ACE inhibitors
Read here to learn more about ACE Inhibitors and other antihypertensive drugs.
ACE Inhibitors vs. ARBs
ACE inhibitors (or Sartans) are used to block angiotensin I from being converted to angiotensin II. On the other hand, if you are specifically going to prevent angiotensin II from binding to the receptors, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) are used.
The moment you block Aldos-Tyrone, you will allow sodium to leave your kidneys and water will immediately follow. This results in:
- Decreased blood pressure
- Decreased pounding pulse
- Reduced jugular venous pressure
- Reduced edema
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