Acute Respiratory Failure or Distress Syndrome

Table of Contents
1 Cardiology I Exam Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.1 Cardiology Terms & Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
1.2 Pharmacology: Lipid Lowering Drugs…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
1.3 Clinical Medicine: Lipids…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
1.4 Pharmacology: Antihypertensives ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
1.5 Clinical Medicine: Hypertension ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
1.6 Pharmacology: Ischemic Heart Disease ………………………………………………………………………………………. 18
1.7 Clinical Medicine: Ischemic Heart Disease …………………………………………………………………………………… 19
1.8 Pharmacology & Clinical Medicine: Heart Failure ………………………………………………………………………….. 24
1.9 Pharmacology & Clinical Medicine: Arrhythmias……………………………………………………………………………. 30
1.10 Clinical Medicine: Cardiovascular Disease Prevention …………………………………………………………………… 31
2 Cardiology II Exam Notes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
2.1 Valvular Heart Disease, Infective Endocarditis, and Rheumatic Fever ……………………………………………… 32
2.2 Vascular Disease ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
2.3 Myocardial and Pericardial Disease…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
2.4 Arrhythmias……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
3 Dermatology Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
3.1 Introduction to Dermatology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
3.2 Common Bacterial Skin Infections ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
3.3 Fungal and Viral Infections of the Skin…………………………………………………………………………………………. 53
3.4 Contact Dermatitis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56
3.5 Common Inflammatory Dermatoses…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 58
3.6 Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Diseases ………………………………………………………………………….. 61
3.7 Acne……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
3.8 Warts………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
3.9 Hair and Nails ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
3.10 Human Ectoparasites………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
4 Emergency Medicine Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
4.1 Chest Pain Presentations & Cardiac Emergencies ………………………………………………………………………… 75
4.2 Infectious Disease Emergencies…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
4.3 Respiratory Emergencies & Airway Management………………………………………………………………………….. 90
4.4 Genitourinary Emergencies………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
4.5 Acute Abdomen ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 100
4.6 GI Bleed………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
4.7 Ocular Emergencies………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 107
4.8 Introduction to Point of Care Ultrasound …………………………………………………………………………………….. 112
5 Emergency Medicine Exam II Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
5.1 Burns…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
5.2 Neurological Emergencies & Head and Spine Trauma…………………………………………………………………. 119
5.3 Pediatric Emergencies …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 131
5.4 Shock ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
5.5 Orthopedic Emergencies………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
5.6 Trauma Resuscitation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
6 Endocrinology Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
6.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
6.2 Diabetes Mellitus…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
6.3 Diabetes Pharmacology: Oral Agents & Non-Insulin Injectables for Diabetes ………………………………….. 150
6.4 Insulin Dosing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
6.5 Thyroid ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 155
6.6 Pituitary Disorders…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 163
6.7 Adrenal Disorders …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 168
6.8 Disorders of Calcium Metabolism………………………………………………………………………………………………. 174
6.9 Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease ………………………………………………………………………………… 177
7 ENT Exam Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
7.1 Primary Care Otolaryngology……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 178
7.2 Ophthalmology……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 191
7.3 Common Dental and Oral Mucosal Disorders……………………………………………………………………………… 197
7.4 Oral Cancer and Precancerous Lesions …………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
8 Gastroenterology Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 200
8.1 Approach to the Patient with Gastrointestinal Disease………………………………………………………………….. 200
8.2 Diagnostic Methods…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
8.3 Miscellaneous GI Complaints and Anorectal Disorders ………………………………………………………………… 206
8.4 Colon Cancer…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 209
8.5 GI Bleed………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 211
8.6 Liver Disease …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
8.7 Esophageal Disease ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
8.8 Pancreatic Disease …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
8.9 Biliary Diseases ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 224
8.10 Infectious Diarrhea………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 227
8.11 Inflammatory Bowel Disease…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
8.12 Irritable Bowel Syndrome…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233
8.13 Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastric Cancer…………………………………………………………………………………… 234
9 Gynecology Exam Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
9.1 Gynecologic Anatomy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
9.2 Gynecologic Physiology …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 238
9.3 Hormone Studies ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 240
9.4 Gyn Procedures ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 243
9.5 Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Amenorrhea, and Dysmenorrhea ………………………………………………………. 246
9.6 Sexually Transmitted Infections ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 248
9.7 Vulvar and Vaginal Disorders……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 255
9.8 Cervical Disorders…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 257
9.9 Gynecologic Pain Disorders and Sexual Dysfunction …………………………………………………………………… 259
9.10 Female Breast Disorders …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 261
9.11 Female Breast Cancer …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 265
9.12 Contraception…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 267
9.13 Hormone Therapy …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 271
9.14 Menopause ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 274
9.15 Uterine Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 276
9.16 Urinary Incontinence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 278
9.17 Induced Abortion and Management of Early Pregnancy Loss ……………………………………………………….. 280
9.18 Ovarian Disorders …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 282
10 Hematology Exam Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 285
10.1 Red Cell Disorders & Neutropenia …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 285
10.2 Hematologic Malignancies ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 294
10.3 Hemostasis: Platelets & Coagulation ………………………………………………………………………………………… 300
10.4 Transfusion Medicine………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 307
11 Infectious Disease Unit Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 309
11.1 Pathogens By Site of Infection ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 309
11.2 Antibiotics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 309
11.3 Introduction: Principles of Infectious Disease………………………………………………………………………………. 315
11.4 Prevention of Disease……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
12 Men’s Health Exam Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
12.1 Male Genitourinary Anatomy…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 330
12.2 H&P of Male Genitalia, Hernias, Lymphatics, Anus, Rectum, and Prostate……………………………………… 332
12.3 Miscellaneous Male Diagnostic Methods ……………………………………………………………………………………. 334
12.4 Topics In Men’s Health…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 334
12.5 Orchitis, Benign Scrotal Disease, and STIs ………………………………………………………………………………… 339
12.6 Male Cancers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 342
13 Microbiology Exam Notes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 345
13.1 Background & Classification …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 345
13.2 Viruses ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 345
13.3 Bacteria…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 347
13.4 Fungi: yeasts & molds……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 348
13.5 Parasites: protozoa & helminths ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 349
13.6 Respiratory Pathogens…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 350
13.7 Pathogens of Skin, Mucous Membranes, and Bone …………………………………………………………………….. 356
13.8 Corynebacterium…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 358
13.9 Gastrointestinal Pathogens ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 362
13.10 Genitourinary Pathogens………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 367
13.11 Pathogens of Sterile Sites ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 370
13.12 Listeria monocytogenes …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 372
13.13 Systemic Febrile Syndromes…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 373
14 Nephrology Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 377
14.1 Nephrology Tidbits ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 377
14.2 iagnostic Methods: Renal Chemistries, UA, Urine Cultures …………………………………………………………… 378
14.3 Diagnostic Methods: Urinary Tract Imaging ………………………………………………………………………………… 381
14.4 Kidney Physiology…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 382
14.5 Salt and Water ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 387
14.6 Nephrolithiasis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 392
14.7 Acute Renal Failure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 395
14.8 Urinary Tract Infections ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 397
14.9 Glomerulopathies and Other Renal Diseases ……………………………………………………………………………… 399
14.10 Chronic Kidney Disease and Management of Potassium, Calcium, and Phosphorus………………… 402
15 Neurology Exam Notes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 408
15.1 Neuroanatomy Review…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 408
15.2 Approach to the Neurologic Patient and Diagnostic Methods ………………………………………………………… 413
15.3 Neurogenetics………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 417
15.4 Movement Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 420
15.5 CNS Infections ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 424
15.6 Multiple Sclerosis ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 426
15.7 CNS Neoplasms……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 427
15.8 Motor Neuron Diseases, Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission, and Muscular Dystrophy ………….. 430
15.9 Epilepsy and Coma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 435
15.10 Coma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 441
15.11 Stroke……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 444
15.12 Headache………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 447
15.13 Peripheral Neuropathies…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 453
16 Oncology Exam Notes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 461
16.1 Imaging Studies in Oncology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 461
16.2 Radiation Therapy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 463
16.3 Chemotherapy ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 465
16.4 Introduction to Medical Oncology………………………………………………………………………………………………. 468
16.5 Types of Solid Tumor Malignancies …………………………………………………………………………………………… 476
17 Ortho Exam Notes ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 483
17.1 Introduction to Orthopedics ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 483
17.2 Cervical Spine………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 487
17.3 Common Shoulder Disorders……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 490
17.4 Elbow, Wrist, and Hand……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 493
17.5 Lumbar Spine…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 500
17.6 The Hip …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 504
17.7 The Knee ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 506
17.8 The Ankle………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 508
17.9 Pharmacology: Management of Musculoskeletal Pain………………………………………………………………….. 511
18 Pulmonology Exam Notes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 514
18.1 Pulmonology H&P…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 514
18.2 Physiology Refresher………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 514
18.3 Common Pulmonary Symptoms ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 515
18.4 Pulmonary Imaging …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 516
18.5 Sputum Cultures …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 518
18.6 Tuberculin Skin Testing……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 518
18.7 Respiratory Tract Infections and Antibiotic Therapy……………………………………………………………………… 519
18.8 Pulmonary Function Testing & Sleep Studies ……………………………………………………………………………… 524
18.9 Obstructive Airway Disease and Pharmacologic Therapies…………………………………………………………… 528
18.10 Interstitial Lung Disease/Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease ………………………………………………… 533
18.11 Occupational Lung Disease………………………………………………………………………………………………. 537
18.12 Venous Thromboembolism……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 539
18.13 Pulmonary Hypertension ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 541
18.14 Lung Cancer and Pleural Disease……………………………………………………………………………………… 542
18.15 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome………………………………………………………………………………… 544
18.16 Cystic Fibrosis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 545
19 Rheumatology Exam Notes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 548
19.1 Introduction to Rheumatic Diseases…………………………………………………………………………………………… 548
19.2 Common Rheumatological Lab Tests ………………………………………………………………………………………… 550
19.3 Rheumatoid Arthritis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 552
19.4 Infectious Arthritis……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 557
19.5 The Spondyloarthropathies ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 558
19.6 Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies…………………………………………………………………………………………… 561
19.7 Scleroderma…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 563
19.8 Crystal-Induced Arthritis…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 564
19.9 Sarcoidosis and Other Systemic Diseases with Rheumatic Manifestations ……………………………………… 568
19.10 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ………………………………………………………………………………………… 571
19.11 SLE Treatment and Prognosis ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 573
19.12 Miscellaneous Rheumatic Diseases…………………………………………………………………………………… 574
19.13 Osteoarthritis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 576
20 Surgery Exam I Notes……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 580
20.1 Intro to the OR ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 580
20.2 Casting………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 585
20.3 Sutures & Knots ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 586
20.4 Bandaging……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 590
20.5 Pre & Post-Op Considerations ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 590
20.6 Shock & Transfusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 593
20.7 Gastrointestinal Surgery I…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 595
20.8 Gastointestinal Surgery II…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 599
20.9 Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Regulation……………………………………………………………………………. 602
20.10 Venipuncture and IV’s ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 606
20.11 Principles of Surgical Infections…………………………………………………………………………………………. 607
20.12 Surgical Nutrition…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 608
21 Surgery Exam II Notes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 610
21.1 Peripheral Vascular Disease and Other Atherosclerosis……………………………………………………………….. 610
21.2 Suturing Techniques ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 613
21.3 Trauma and Care of the Acutely Injured Patient ………………………………………………………………………….. 614
21.4 Congenital Heart Disease ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 618
21.5 Acquired Heart Disease …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 620
21.6 Wound Healing, Sutures, and Wound Closures…………………………………………………………………………… 626
21.7 Neurosurgery …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 629
21.8 Common Office Procedures……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 631
21.9 Chest Tube Placement…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 633
21.10 Intubation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 633
21.11 Orthopedic Surgery …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 634
21.12 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 635
21.13 Esophageal Cancer…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 636
21.14 Transplantation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 637