Endocrine Glands Practice Questions with Answers and NCLEX® Review

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that secrete hormones to help regulate metabolism, among other body functions.

Endocrine Glands Practice Questions with Answers and Practice Questions

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Table of contents

    Introduction to Endocrine Glands

    The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands and tissues dispersed throughout the body. Hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and released into the bloodstream, which transports them to their target tissues.

    Endocrine System Glands and Hormones

    Endocrine hormones travel through the bloodstream to encounter target cells. Once in their target cells, hormones perform their functions. The liver and kidney process excess hormones and waste products from hormone metabolism.

    Anterior Pituitary

    The anterior pituitary is the front lobe of the pituitary gland, a small gland located in the lower reaches of the brain just above the hypothalamus. It creates and releases six hormones that regulate the functions of various cells.

    Posterior Pituitary

    The posterior pituitary is the back part of the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain. The back area doesn’t produce hormones but stores and releases hormones produced by the front part.

    Hormone

    • ADH: Antidiuretic Hormone
      • Memory Trick: Add Da H20
    • Oxytocin

    Effect on Target

    • Adds water back into the body by telling the kidneys to reabsorb water 
    • Stimulates uterine contractions and lactation of breast milk (for pregnant clients)

    Stimulus for Release

    • Decreased blood pressure, pain, and high osmolality of the blood
    • Labor and delivery of newborn or infant breastfeeding

    Thyroid

    The thyroid is a small gland located at the front of the neck under the skin. This tiny organ regulates the speed of metabolism, which is the process by which food becomes energy for all the body’s cells.

    Points to remember:

    • T4 → T3 (active thyroid hormone)
    • TSH = Thyroid stimulating hormone

    Parathyroid Glands

    The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small, oval-shaped glands that sit next to the neck’s two thyroid gland lobes. The parathyroid glands keep proper levels of both calcium and phosphorus in the body by turning off or on the release of parathyroid hormone.

    Points to remember:

    • PTH = Parathyroid Hormone
    • PTH Puts The calcium HIGH
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    Adrenal Glands

    The adrenal glands make hormones that help regulate metabolism, the immune system, blood pressure, response to stress, and other essential functions. They’re divided into two parts: the cortex (outer region), which is responsible for producing different hormones than the medulla (inner part).

    Adrenal Cortex

    The adrenal cortex is the outer region of the adrenal gland, and is divided into three parts:

    1. Zona glomerulosa
    2. Zona fasciculata
    3. Zona reticularis

    Adrenal Medulla

    The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, and makes fight-and-flight Catecholamines:

    • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

    Endocrine Hormones Memory Trick

    M.A.C.C. Hormones:

    • Mineral corticoids steroids
    • Androgen steroids
    • Cortisol steroid
    • Catecholamines
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