Introduction to Endocrine Glands
The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands and tissues dispersed throughout the body. Hormones are produced by the endocrine glands and released into the bloodstream, which transports them to their target tissues.
Endocrine System Glands and Hormones
Endocrine hormones travel through the bloodstream to encounter target cells. Once in their target cells, hormones perform their functions. The liver and kidney process excess hormones and waste products from hormone metabolism.
The anterior pituitary is the front lobe of the pituitary gland, a small gland located in the lower reaches of the brain just above the hypothalamus. It creates and releases six hormones that regulate the functions of various cells.
The posterior pituitary is the back part of the pituitary gland, a small gland at the base of the brain. The back area doesn’t produce hormones but stores and releases hormones produced by the front part.
- ADH: Antidiuretic Hormone
- Memory Trick: Add Da H20
Effect on Target
- Adds water back into the body by telling the kidneys to reabsorb water
- Stimulates uterine contractions and lactation of breast milk (for pregnant clients)
Stimulus for Release
- Decreased blood pressure, pain, and high osmolality of the blood
- Labor and delivery of newborn or infant breastfeeding
The thyroid is a small gland located at the front of the neck under the skin. This tiny organ regulates the speed of metabolism, which is the process by which food becomes energy for all the body’s cells.
Points to remember:
- T4 → T3 (active thyroid hormone)
- TSH = Thyroid stimulating hormone
The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small, oval-shaped glands that sit next to the neck’s two thyroid gland lobes. The parathyroid glands keep proper levels of both calcium and phosphorus in the body by turning off or on the release of parathyroid hormone.
Points to remember:
- PTH = Parathyroid Hormone
- PTH Puts The calcium HIGH
to take the
The adrenal glands make hormones that help regulate metabolism, the immune system, blood pressure, response to stress, and other essential functions. They’re divided into two parts: the cortex (outer region), which is responsible for producing different hormones than the medulla (inner part).
The adrenal cortex is the outer region of the adrenal gland, and is divided into three parts:
- Zona glomerulosa
- Zona fasciculata
- Zona reticularis
The adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, and makes fight-and-flight Catecholamines:
- Epinephrine (adrenaline)
- Norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Endocrine Hormones Memory Trick
- Mineral corticoids steroids
- Androgen steroids
- Cortisol steroid
During my exam, I could literally see and hear him going over different areas as I was answering my questions.
This past Friday I retook my Maternity Hesi and this time, I decided for my last week of Holiday break to just watch all of his OB videos. I am proud to say that with Mike’s help I received a score of 928 on my Maternity Hesi!